What is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is a formidable adversary that affects millions of individuals worldwide. While it is a pervasive health concern, early detection significantly improves the chances of successful treatment and recovery. This article will look at breast cancer warning signs, causes and risk factors, mammograms and some excellent treatment options such as Talzenna (talazoparib), a medication used in the treatment of certain types of breast cancer. It works by blocking an enzyme called poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP).

Worst Drinks for Breast Cancer

  • Alcoholic beverages.
  • Sugary drinks (e.g., soda, sweetened teas).
  • High-fat dairy drinks (e.g., whole milk, milkshakes).

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5 Warning Signs of Breast Cancer

The signs and symptoms of breast cancer are vital for every woman to be aware of because early detection can curb the spread of breast cancer. The early signs of breast cancer may appear within the breast of the armpit. The most common signs of breast cancer are:

  1. Pain in the armpits or breast that doesn’t follow the menstrual cycle pattern.
  2. Sunken or inverted nipples.
  3. Discharge from the nipples, sometimes containing blood.
  4. A change in the size or shape of a breast.
  5. Peeling or scaling of the skin on the breast or nipple.

It’s important to note that most lumps in the breast are not cancerous. However, to confirm whether a lump is cancerous or not, a visit to the doctor is warranted when signs of breast cancer are found.

Doing a breast exam at home every month is recommended as a way to remain on guard for signs of breast cancer.

Causes and Risk Factors

Breast cancer statistics show that:

  • Along with skin cancer, breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in women.
  • In January 2020, there were 3.5 million women in the U.S. with some type of breast cancer history.
  • The risk for breast cancer almost doubles if a woman has a mother, sister, or daughter who has been diagnosed with breast cancer.

Although these statistics should be taken into consideration, new advances in treatment and early detection efforts have led to a decrease in breast cancer death rates since 1989.

Now, let's look at common causes and risk factors for breast cancer:

Family History

A family history remains one of the most significant risk factors for breast cancer.

For example, when there are mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2—which repair DNA in the body—it allows rapidly growing cancer cells to multiply. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 can be passed down through generations, making it more likely that breast cancer will run in the family.


Environmental factors can influence overall cancer risk, including breast cancer.

For example, the ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun can damage DNA and cause cells to multiply. Other factors like environmental pollutants and chemicals can also increase the risk of breast cancer.


The risk for breast cancer increases with age. For example, the risk for a 70-year-old developing breast cancer is almost 4% greater than that of a 20-year-old.

Estrogen and Hormone Therapy

An increased exposure to estrogen can be a breast cancer risk. When a female experiences their first menstrual cycle at a young age, their body is exposed to estrogen more often and for longer periods than a female who had their first period at a later age. Therefore, women who had their first period at an early age have a higher risk for breast cancer.

On the other hand, women who undergo menopause at a later age may also have a higher risk of breast cancer, due to prolonged estrogen exposure.

Hormone treatment may also (slightly) increase the risk of breast cancer. Hormone treatment may include hormonal birth control or hormone replacement therapies.

Self-Exam and Mammograms

Although most breast lumps aren’t cancerous, they may still be called tumors. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Determining whether a lump is benign or malignant is the first step to diagnosing breast cancer, so it’s vital to identify any lumps as soon as possible. To detect breast changes, a monthly breast self-exam is recommended for all women.

40% of diagnosed breast cancers are found by women who feel a lump, which underscores just how important breast self-exams are.

A mammogram is an x-ray of the breasts and can spot lumps that may be undetectable through a breast self-exam. The American Cancer Society suggests
annual mammograms
for women ages 45–54. A mammogram is recommended every two years for women who are 55 and older.

Women who are under the age of 45 and over the age of 70 should consult with their healthcare professional to determine how often a mammogram should be performed.

Treatment Options

Treatment options for breast cancer include both local treatments (targeting the cancer site specifically) and systemic treatments (affecting the whole body).

Local treatments include surgery or radiation treatments. Systemic treatments may include hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy options.

The course of treatment chosen typically depends on the stage of the cancer and the health of the person affected.

Talzenna for Breast Cancer

Talzenna (talazoparib) is a medication used to treat certain types of advanced breast cancer, particularly in patients with inherited BRCA mutations. It works by inhibiting the enzyme PARP, which helps repair DNA damage in cells. By blocking PARP, Talzenna makes it harder for cancer cells to repair themselves, leading to their destruction while sparing most healthy cells. This targeted approach helps slow down or stop the growth of cancer.

When to See a Doctor

Spotting a lump or breast abnormality doesn’t mean a cancer diagnosis is inevitable, and most lumps turn out to be benign.

However, reporting a breast abnormality to a doctor within a week or two of spotting it can help determine the best approach. Because breast cancer can be life-threatening, it’s best to err on the side of caution.

Read on to learn about the warning signs of bladder cancer.